Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia, bilharziasis, bilharziosis, or snail fever) is a human disease syndrome caused by infection from one of several species of parasitic trematodes of the genus Schistosoma. Schistosomiasis is a major source of morbidity and mortality for developing countries in Africa, South America, the Caribbean, the Middle East, and Asia. Acute symptoms are dermatitis, followed several weeks later by fever, chills, nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea, malaise, and myalgia. Chronic symptoms vary with species but include bloody diarrhea (eg, with S. mansoni) or hematuria (eg, with S. haematobium). Diagnosis of schistosomiasis by detection of specific antibodies is more sensitive than the traditional method of diagnosis by detection of eggs in stool or urine.