Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent glycoprotein present in platelets and synthesized within the liver and endothelial cells. Protein S works as part of the natural anticoagulant system by acting as a cofactor to activated protein C (APC) in the proteolytic inactivation of procoagulant factors Va and VIIIa. In addition, protein S has direct APC-independent anticoagulant activity by inhibiting formation of the prothrombin and tenase complexes, possibly due to its high affinity for anionic phospholipid membranes. In human plasma, protein S forms a complex with the compliment regulatory protein, C4b-binding protein (C4bBP). Of the total plasma protein S, approximately 60% circulates bound to C4bBP while the remaining 40% circulates as "free" protein S. Only free protein S has anticoagulant function. C4bBP is composed of 6 or 7 alpha-chains and 1 or no beta-chain (C4bBP-beta). Different C4bBP isoforms are present in plasma, but only C4bBP-beta binds protein S. Congenital protein S deficiency is an autosomal dominant disorder that is present in 2% to 6% of patients with venous thrombosis. Patients with protein S deficiency have an approximately 10-fold increased risk of venous thrombosis. In addition they may also experience recurrent miscarriage, complications of pregnancy (preeclampsia, abruptio placentae, intrauterine growth restriction, and stillbirth) and possibly arterial thrombosis. Three types of protein S deficiency have been described according to the levels of total protein S antigen, free protein S antigen, and protein S activity in plasma. Types I and III protein S deficiency are much more common than type II (dysfunctional) protein S deficiency. Type III protein S deficiency appears to be partly due to mutations within the protein S binding region for C4bBP-beta. Homozygous protein S deficiency is rare, but can present as neonatal purpura fulminans, reflecting severe disseminated intravascular coagulation/intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis (DIC/ICF) caused by the absence of plasma protein S. Acquired deficiency of protein S has causes that are generally of unknown haemostatic significance (ie, uncertain thrombosis risk), and is much more common than hereditary protein S deficiency. Acquired protein S deficiency can present through vitamin K deficiency, oral anticoagulant therapy, liver disease, DIC/ICF, thrombotic thrombocytopenia purpura, pregnancy or estrogen therapy, nephritic syndrome, and sickle cell anemia. As an acute-phase reactant, plasma C4bBP levels increase with acute illness and may cause acquired free protein S deficiency. Measurement of plasma free protein S antigen is performed as the initial testing for protein S deficiency. When the free protein S antigen level is below the age- and sex-adjusted normal range, reflexive testing will be performed for total plasma protein S antigen.
Transfer 1.5 mL CRITICAL FROZEN platelet-poor plasma