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Measuring the osmolality of the urine gives an estimate of the ability of the kidneys to dilute or concentrate the urine. It is frequently ordered along with serum osmolality. This test is used to help evaluate the body’s water balance and to investigate increased and decreased urine output. Urine osmolality primarily measures the waste products urea and creatinine. INCREASED urine output may be due to increased fluid intake, lack of appropriate amounts of ADH, or diabetes mellitus (increased glucose levels leading to increased urine output). DECREASED urine osmolality may be due to a variety of causes including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, an appropriate response to dehydration, or damage to tubular cells in the kidneys. See Osmolality, Serum